Tuesday, June 23, 2020

Tuberculosis health education

1. TB concept

Tuberculosis is a common chronic infectious disease caused by tuberculosis bacteria, which can occur in any part of the body, most commonly in the lungs, and is called tuberculosis.

2. The main transmission routes of tuberculosis

It is mainly spread by air droplets, such as tuberculosis patients coughing, sputum, sneezing, when they speak loudly, they will spread the droplets with tuberculosis bacteria into the air, and they will be infected by inhalation by the surrounding people; secondly by tuberculosis bacteria Contaminated food or eating utensils can cause intestinal infections.

3. The main clinical symptoms of tuberculosis

The main symptom of tuberculosis is cough, sputum more than two weeks, blood in the sputum, some people will have low fever, night sweats, chest pain, poor appetite, phlegm and weight loss.

4. Treatment of tuberculosis

If tuberculosis is not treated in time, it will cause the expansion of your lungs, which will affect your health, work and life. It can be life-threatening in severe cases; it can also infect family and friends. Once you have been diagnosed with tuberculosis, you should take the medicine immediately as directed by your doctor without interrupting or insisting on treatment for at least 6 months. Any changes in treatment should be decided by the doctor. Adhere to regular treatment, the vast majority of patients with tuberculosis can be cured. Commonly used drugs for the treatment of tuberculosis are: rifampin, isoniazid, ethambutol, pyrazinamide, streptomycin and so on. Anyone who has frequent contact with tuberculosis patients who have coughing or expectoration for more than two weeks should be suspected of having tuberculosis. Please visit the tuberculosis clinic in time.

5. Knowledge of nutrition and health care for pulmonary tuberculosis patients

"Three Highs and Two Prohibitions" Principle

high calories

Tuberculosis is a chronic wasting disease that requires more calories than normal people. The general requirement is to supply 30 kcal per kg of body weight, the total daily intake is about 2000 kcal, light manual workers 40 kcal per kg of body weight, about 2400 kcal per day.

High protein

Because tuberculosis patients consume a lot of protein, and protein is an important nutrient for repairing tissues, it is beneficial for healing of lesions. The daily protein intake of tuberculosis patients should be 1.5 to 2.0 grams per kilogram of body weight, and the total daily intake should be 80 to 100 grams. Among them, high-quality protein, such as meat, poultry, aquatic products, egg milk and soy products, should account for the total protein intake. above 50.

High vitamin

Vitamin ABCD should be supplemented. Vitamin A enhances the body's immunity, vitamin D promotes calcium absorption, vitamin C is beneficial for lesion healing and hemoglobin synthesis, and B-group vitamins have an appetite-improving effect. Among them, vitamin B6 can fight the side effects caused by the treatment with isoniazid. Fresh vegetables and fruits are also the main source of vitamins. In addition, foods such as entrails are rich in vitamin A, and yeast, peanuts, and lean meat are rich in vitamin B6.

No smoking and drinking

Smoking can increase the irritation of the respiratory tract and digestive tract, drinking causes blood vessels to dilate, and aggravates symptoms such as coughing and hemoptysis.

In addition, special attention should be paid to the supplementation of calcium and iron in the diet of tuberculosis patients. Calcium is the raw material for calcification of tuberculosis, and the amount of calcium contained in milk is high and high quality. Patients should drink 250 to 500 grams of milk every day. Iron is an essential raw material for the manufacture of hemoglobin, and those with hemoptysis and bloody stools should pay more attention to supplementation.

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