Tuesday, June 23, 2020

Principles of first aid for trauma and burn

Compression bandage to stop bleeding after trauma bleeding
In general, 1000 ml is a dangerous value for human blood loss, and bleeding exceeding this value can be life-threatening. Therefore, it is very important to rescue as soon as possible. Before hemostasis, wash your hands to prevent infection. If you do not know the health status of the injured, it is best to wear gloves to prevent any possible infectious diseases. When hemostasis, use finger pressure to press the hemostatic point, find the beating blood vessel above the wound and press it tightly with your finger.

Specific methods: Facial hemorrhage can use the thumb to compress the facial artery between the mandibular angle and the chin nodule; anterior head hemorrhage can compress the temporal artery above the anterior mandibular joint of the ear; posterior hemorrhage should press the ear slightly outside the posterior ear Posterior arteries; forearm hemorrhage exerts pressure on the medial sulcus of the upper arm biceps to press the brachial artery against the humerus; palm and back hemorrhage should usually be based on the pulse and the blood pressure of the beating radial artery. At the same time, use sterile gauze or a clean cloth to hold the wound tightly for at least five minutes. If the bleeding slows or the blood stops, use a strap to fix the hemostatic material on the wound. If tied with a rubber band, relax once every 30 minutes, about 2 minutes, to prevent tissue necrosis. If there are any signs of shock, call 120 for emergency care while hemostasis.

Note: If there is a foreign body in the wound, do not take it out. Pulling it out may make the bleeding worse. At this time, it is necessary to cover the injured area with sterile gauze, being careful not to make the foreign body deeper. Bypassing the foreign body, the wound was wrapped up and down in an “8” shape with a bandage, and immediately went to the doctor to remove the foreign body and treat the wound.

First aid for burns and burns remember the five-character principle
Dial 120 immediately or seek immediate medical attention and carry out necessary on-site first aid. The first task of on-site first aid is to immediately get rid of the source of the injury and to minimize the further damage to the tissue body caused by the source of the injury. The burning clothes should be quickly taken off, or the flames should be rolled on the spot to extinguish the flame, or the nearest water source should be used to extinguish the fire, or the non-flammable clothing should be covered with fire to extinguish the fire. Avoid running for help to avoid aggravating head and face and respiratory tract injuries. Taiwan in our country puts forward the five-character principle of "flushing, removing, soaking, covering, and delivering" in first aid for burns and scalds. "Flushing" is the immediate shower cooling after burns. "Removal" is the removal of the burned or hot liquid. Clothing, "bubble" refers to cold therapy, "cover" refers to the coverage of the wound, "send" means to be transferred to the hospital properly.

Specific method: Drain the burn wound under the tap or immerse it in clean cold water (the water temperature is subject to the tolerant of the wounded, generally 15 ~ 20 ℃, summer ice can be added to the water), or use clean cold (ice) Towels and gauze pads soaked in water are applied to the wound surface, but cold therapy at too low a temperature is also detrimental to the wound surface. There is no clear limit to the duration of cold therapy. Generally, it is known that the pain is significantly reduced after the cold therapy stops, and it usually takes 0.5 to 1 hour or longer.

Burn wounds can be covered with clean dressings, towels, bed sheets, etc. or simply bandaged, and properly protected against re-contamination. Do not apply unsuitable substances to the burn wound, and do not apply drugs at will, such as: unknown dose of antibiotics, disinfectants, etc., so as not to cause excessive absorption and poisoning. Do not apply colored drugs, such as red mercury, gentian violet, so as not to hinder the observation of the wound surface and the judgment of the depth. Do not apply substances that are not easy to remove, such as yellow sauce, soy sauce, sesame oil, toothpaste, incense ash, etc., because these substances do not have any therapeutic effect on the wound surface, but will hinder debridement and increase the chance of wound pollution.

Note: Do not squeeze the affected area and tear the blisters. Because you have bacteria on your hands, you cannot perform aseptic procedures as doctors do. Squeezing or tearing the blisters is more likely to cause wound infections. Do not apply egg white, butter or ointment to the affected area, so as not to cause infection; do not directly apply ice cubes to the wound surface! Putting ice cubes directly on the wound surface can cause further damage to the wound surface due to the sharp temperature drop. If it is heavy or hurts hands, feet, face, groin, buttocks or major joints, it must be treated according to deep burns and seek emergency medical attention.

In addition, whether tetanus is complicated by burn patients is not due to the size of the burned area, but to the depth of the burn and the situation of the injury. Those who have serious burns or serious pollution must take tetanus prevention measures.

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