Tuesday, June 23, 2020

Knowledge of prevention and control of mumps

Mumps is an acute viral infectious disease caused by mumps virus, which mainly occurs in children and adolescents; it can occur throughout the year, mainly in winter and spring; it is a national legal class B infectious disease.

(1) How resistant is the mumps virus?

Mumps virus is a single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the genus Paramyxovirus of the Paramyxoviridae family. Its resistance is low, UV, formaldehyde and 56 ℃ temperature can be inactivated, but can survive for several days at 4 ℃.

(2) How does mumps spread?

Early patients and people with invisible infections are the source of infection. Pathogens are mainly spread by air or droplets, but can also be spread by direct contact with the saliva of infected persons. The crowd is generally susceptible.

(3) What are the symptoms of mumps?

Most of the patients have no prodromal symptoms after infection, and some patients may have symptoms such as burnout, chills, loss of appetite, low fever, headache, etc. Then, one parotid gland swells or both parotid glands swell at the same time, within 2-3 days Peak, one or both sides of the face are deformed due to swelling, local pain, allergies, pain when opening and chewing, obvious pain caused by eating acidic foods, often affecting nearby submandibular glands, sublingual glands, and neck lymph nodes . Parotid gland enlargement may last for about 5 days, and then subsides day after day, with a total course of about 7-12 days. Blood routine examination of white blood cell count may sometimes decrease slightly, and lymphocytes relatively increase.

In addition to invading the parotid gland, the mumps virus can also invade the nervous system and various glandular tissues, causing meningitis, meningoencephalitis, orchitis, ovitis, and pancreatitis.

(4) How does the public prevent mumps?

1. Vaccination is the most economical, convenient and effective way to prevent mumps. Children 18-24 months of age can be vaccinated free of a dose of mumps vaccine (mumps vaccine).

2. Maintain good personal hygiene habits and maintain indoor air circulation.

3. Cover your mouth and nose when sneezing or coughing, and properly clean up the discharge from the nose and mouth.

4. Keep your hands clean. Wash your hands immediately after they are contaminated by respiratory secretions (such as after sneezing).

5. Thoroughly clean toys and furniture used by children.

6. Early detection of patients, early isolation, isolation period should be about three weeks from the onset of the parotid swelling to the full resolution. Avoid spreading the disease to people who are not immune.

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