Tuesday, June 23, 2020

Knowledge of chickenpox prevention and control

Varicella is a primary infection caused by varicella-zoster virus, an acute infectious skin disease characterized by herpes out of the body. It is more common in children and has a high degree of infectivity. It is easy to cause epidemic in small areas and can be immunized for life.

(1) How does chickenpox spread?

Varicella is highly contagious. 90% of susceptible children develop the disease after exposure, mainly through direct contact with varicella herpes fluid (chickenpox scab is not contagious) and air droplets, or through contaminated utensils. Blood donors in the incubation period can Through blood transfusion, pregnant women suffering from chickenpox 6 days before childbirth can infect the fetus and develop the disease within 10-13 days after birth.

(2) What are the symptoms of chickenpox?

The incubation period of chickenpox is 12-21 days, with an average of 14 days. Clinically, it can be divided into prodromal stage and rash stage. The onset is more acute. The prodromal period may be asymptomatic or have only mild symptoms. It may also have low or moderate fever and headache, general malaise, fatigue, loss of appetite, sore throat, cough, etc., and enter the rash quickly after 1-2 days. period.

(3) How to prevent chickenpox?

1. Manage the source of infection: General chickenpox patients should be isolated and treated at home until 7 days after all herpes scabs or rash.

2. Cut off the transmission route: attention should be paid to ventilation and ventilation to avoid contact with patients in the acute phase. Disinfect patient respiratory secretions and contaminated supplies. Child care institutions should be disinfected with ultraviolet light.

3. Protection of susceptible persons: Passive immunization with intramuscular injection of varicella zoster immunoglobulin, use within 12 hours after lifting has preventive effect, mainly used for those with cellular immunodeficiency, immunosuppressive therapy, and severe illness People (such as leukemia, lymphoma and other malignant tumors) or susceptible pregnant women and frail people can also be used to control and prevent the outbreak of chickenpox in the hospital. The prevention effect of live attenuated vaccine on natural infection is 68%-100%, and can last for more than 10 years.

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