Tuesday, June 23, 2020

Key points of health education for HFMD

1. Pathogens: Hand-foot-mouth disease is an infectious disease caused by enteroviruses. The main pathogens are enterovirus 71 and coxsackie virus A16.

2. Epidemiological characteristics: April-June each year is a high incidence season for hand-foot-mouth disease, and there will be small peaks in autumn and winter in some areas. The affected population is mainly children aged 5 years and younger. The same child may have multiple episodes due to infection with different types of enteroviruses.

3. Clinical features: Most hand, foot and mouth diseases are self-limiting diseases, which can heal without treatment within 7-10 days. The patient usually begins with fever, loss of appetite, poor mental health, and sore throat. After 1-2 days, oral ulcers appear, and red rashes appear on the palms, soles, and buttocks. Some patients may only have a rash without fever. A small number of patients will develop into severe cases, and very few can also die.

4. Method of transmission: mainly through contact with patients' mouth and nose secretions, herpes fluid, feces, and contact with contaminated toys, bottles, tableware and other items for transmission.

5. Case management: There is currently no specific antiviral drug. Patients need to add enough water, and ensure adequate rest, can be symptomatic treatment such as fever, analgesia. Parents and doctors should pay close attention to the child's condition. Seek medical treatment and strengthen treatment as soon as possible if: persistent high fever, repeated vomiting, drowsiness, easy to startle or irritability, hand and foot shaking, trunk ataxia, sudden limb weakness, breathing difficulties Or shortness of breath.

6. Prevention: There is currently no vaccine prevention. Good personal and environmental hygiene is the most important preventive measure, as follows:

⑴ Wash hands before eating, after going to the toilet, after handling vomitus or changing diapers;

⑵When sneezing or coughing, cover your nose and mouth with a tissue (if no tissue is available, you can use the elbow joint), and throw the tissue into the trash can;

⑶ Do not share personal items, such as towels, spoons, etc.;

⑷To clean and disinfect toys or other items contaminated by patients' mouth and nose secretions, as well as frequently touched items, furniture and toilets, can be disinfected with high temperature (>56℃), bleaching powder or ultraviolet radiation;

⑸ Avoid close contact with patients with hand, foot and mouth disease.

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