Monday, June 22, 2020

Hand, foot and mouth disease prevention and home care

1. Understanding Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease

Hand, foot and mouth disease is a common infectious disease in children, mostly occurring in children under 5 years old; it is mainly characterized by fever, oral mucosal herpes or ulcers, skin rash on the hands, feet, buttocks, etc.; although it may be affected throughout the year Hand, foot and mouth disease, but the temperature suitable for hand, foot and mouth virus survival is 20 degrees -40 degrees, so every spring comes, with the temperature rising, children with hand, foot and mouth disease will gradually increase.

Enteroviruses are the causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease. Severe cases are mostly caused by EV71 infection. They can be combined with encephalitis, encephalomyelitis, neurogenic pulmonary edema, heart damage and other fatal complications. The disease is dangerous and the mortality rate is high. Mild people generally heal themselves in about 1 week, so hand-foot-mouth disease needs early detection, early diagnosis, and early treatment. Most children have a good prognosis, and a few may have neurological sequelae.

2. How to prevent HFMD daily?

1. Get EV71 vaccine. The EV71 vaccine can effectively prevent EV71-related hand-foot-mouth disease and other diseases caused by EV71 infection. It is best to complete the vaccination within 1 year of age. The earlier the vaccination before the age of 5, the better.

2. Good personal hygiene and environmental hygiene are very important, including the following points:

(1) Pay attention to hand hygiene, especially before using mouth, nose and mouth, before eating or handling food, after going to the toilet, after touching herpes/respiratory secretions, changing diapers, or handling items contaminated with feces, use clean water, hand sanitizer, or soap handwashing.

(2) Cover your mouth and nose with a handkerchief or tissue when sneezing or coughing, then wrap the tissue and throw it into a covered trash can.

(3) Do not share towels or other personal items with others.

(4) Avoid close contact with children, such as hugging.

(5) Frequently clean and disinfect (chlorine-containing disinfectant) the surfaces of objects or objects that are in frequent contact, such as toys and furniture. After cleaning, wipe or soak and disinfect with chlorine-containing disinfectant. After 30 minutes, wipe or rinse with clean water clean.

(6) Use paper towels to clean the patient's nasopharyngeal secretions, vomit, feces, etc., and timely disinfect the surface or environment of the objects contaminated by the above secretions or excreta.

(7) Every year from April to July is the epidemic period of hand, foot and mouth disease. During this period, try to avoid taking children to participate in group activities.

3. What should be paid attention to when treating or isolating children at home?

Hand, foot and mouth disease is an infectious disease, and the most infectious in the first week after onset. Children's respiratory secretions (snouts), saliva, stool, and herpes fluids all contain viruses. The viruses can attach to the children's contact with the ground, toys, tableware, clothes, etc. The main mode of transmission of the disease is that healthy children come into contact with the above items. In addition, they can also spread through respiratory droplets. Therefore, the following measures should be taken to greatly reduce the number of hand-foot-mouth disease and promote the early recovery of children.

1. Health monitoring: During the isolation treatment of the child at home, parents and caregivers should closely observe the condition. If there is persistent high fever, depression, lethargy, or limb tremor and convulsions, etc., it may progress to severe disease in a short time, and the child should be sent immediately See a doctor.

2. General care: Regularly measure the body temperature of the child, avoid rubbing and squeezing herpes, eat liquid or semi-liquid mainly, cut the nails to avoid scratching herpes.

3. Disinfection at home: Clean furniture, toys, floors, etc. that are frequently in contact with it every day, and disinfect with chlorine-containing disinfectants 1-2 times a week. The patient's secretions, vomit or excrement and the items or environment contaminated by them should be wiped or disinfected with chlorine-containing disinfectant in time after cleaning, and after 30 minutes of action, wipe or rinse with clean water.

4. Isolate well: The time limit for home isolation is 1 week after all the symptoms of the child disappear. During this period, the child should try to avoid going out, not to go to kindergartens and public places where people gather, to avoid contact with other children.

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