Tuesday, June 23, 2020

Hand, foot and mouth disease knowledge

Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common disease of infants and children. It is characterized by fever, oral ulcers and herpes. The initial symptoms are low fever, decreased appetite, discomfort, and often accompanied by sore throat. After 1-2 days of fever, oral ulcers appear, starting with red herpes, and then often become ulcers. Oral herpes is common in the tongue, gums, and buccal mucosa. After 1 to 2 days, skin maculopapular rash can be seen, some of which are herpes, and the rash is not itchy. It is common on the palms and soles of the feet, but also on the buttocks.

Symptoms of hand, foot and mouth disease

1. Acute onset, fever;

2. There are scattered herpes in the oral mucosa, the size of rice grains, and obvious pain;

3. Rice grain size herpes appears on the palm or sole of the foot, but the hips or knees may be affected;

4. There is inflammatory blush around herpes, and there is less fluid in the blisters;

5. Some children may be accompanied by cough, runny nose, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, headache

Is hand, foot and mouth disease serious?

Usually not serious. Almost all patients can recover without treatment. Hand, foot and mouth disease usually recovers within 7-10 days. Complications are uncommon. Very few patients can have aseptic or viral meningitis. The symptoms are fever, headache, straight neck or back pain, which requires hospitalization for a period of time.

What kind of people are susceptible to hand, foot and mouth disease?

The population is generally susceptible to hand-foot-and-mouth disease virus, which can be infected in all age groups. However, it is found in the prevention practice that the patients are mainly preschool children, especially in the age group of 3 years and younger.

Spread of hand, foot and mouth disease

Will hand, foot and mouth disease be contagious? meeting. Hand, foot and mouth disease is moderately contagious. The infection is transmitted from person to person through direct contact with the nasal and pharyngeal secretions or feces of the infected person. It is the most contagious in the first week of onset. Hand, foot and mouth disease does not spread between humans and animals or pets.

Diagnosis of hand, foot and mouth disease

Doctors can usually identify mouth ulcers caused by hand-foot-mouth disease and other causes based on the patient's age, the symptoms reported by the patient or parent, and examination of rashes and ulcers. Pharyngeal swabs or fecal specimens can be sent to the laboratory for virus detection, but virus testing takes 2-4 weeks to produce results, so doctors usually do not propose to do this test.

Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease Treatment

medical treatement

1. First, go to the hospital for diagnosis and treatment, and take the medicine as directed by the doctor, and rest in bed.

2. If necessary, take Chinese patent medicines, such as Pediatric Yanbian Granules, Qingkailing Oral Liquid, Banlangen Granules and other oral drugs.

3. Take watermelon frost or smecta and apply it to the oral cavity, 2-3 times a day.

4. Pay attention to oral skin cleanliness, clean the oral cavity with normal saline every day, and pay attention to nursing patients to prevent them from scratching the skin herpes to prevent ulcer infection.

Special Note:

1. For the sick baby, it must be isolated for 7-10 days from the onset to avoid infecting other children.

2. The diet should be light and non-irritating, and avoid spicy, fish, shrimp, meat and other foods that can make the disease worse.

3. The diet temperature should not be too high. Eating overheated food can stimulate the ulcer and cause pain, which is not conducive to the healing of the lesion. 4. Although hand, foot and mouth disease is similar to chickenpox, it usually recovers quickly, but it should not be taken lightly. Care should be taken to prevent isolation and prevent spread. When mommy can't recognize the disease, go to the doctor and treat the suspected child early, treat early and isolate early.

1. Avoid letting children come into contact with children or people with suspicious symptoms. Always wash your hands before eating, do not use other people's tableware or other daily necessities at will, and go to densely populated public places as little as possible. Public Encyclopedia

2. If your child is infected, you must rest in bed very well. Drink warm water when you have a fever. You should eat a light and soft diet. Pay attention to eating low-temperature food when the child has a mouth pain. Hospital infusion to supplement the heat energy required by the body.

3. Pay attention to the hygiene of the children. Treat feces immediately. Disinfect the potty and clothing in time, protect the skin and clothing of the hands and feet, and clean the sheets. Avoid contaminated rashes. Wash your hands and shorten your nails to prevent scratching the rash and causing skin infections. Public Encyclopedia

Recipe therapy

During the acute attack, the hands, feet, and oral mucosa are covered with herpes or ulcers, pain, fever, and irritability. The tongue is red, white, or yellow, and the fingerprint is purple or pulse. The card is caused by evil virus when exogenous, and the spleen and stomach are filled with tears in the orbital depression. It should be used for clearing heat and purging spleen, detoxifying and cooling blood. Drug composition: honeysuckle, dandelion, skullcap 10 grams each, forsythia 9 grams, wild chrysanthemum, red peony root green leaf 12 grams each, gypsum 15-30 grams. Those who have high fever and moving winds add antelope horns and cicadas; those who have the heart of the rice are prosperous, and they lead to red scattered; if the stool is constipated, the yellow and the radix sibiricum are increased; and the yin and deficiencies are Jiamaidong and Zhimu; and Wind-heat offenders add mulberry leaves and bitter almonds. 1 dose per day, decoction in 2 servings.

During the recovery period, it is hot or slightly hot. Herpes gradually subsides, and the stomach is poor, etc. This is Yu Yuxie, the treatment should be spleen to help transport, and Qinghua. Foreign party: 15 grams each for Guya and Shangyiren, 6 grams for cicada slough, 9 grams each for Uncaria and light bamboo leaves and 5 grams for licorice 1 dose per day, decoction in 2 servings.

Epidemiology

Source of infection

Humans are the only natural host for human enteroviruses, so patients and patients with recessive infections are the main source of infection for HFMD. Patients are infectious a few days before the onset of illness, usually the most infectious within a week of onset. The patient has a large amount of virus in herpes fluid, and the virus overflows when it breaks. Pharyngeal secretions can be detoxified for 1 to 2 weeks, and feces for about 3 to 5 weeks.

way for spreading

The spread of the disease is diverse, with fecal-oral transmission as the main route. Mainly caused by oral infections caused by human contact with feces, pharyngeal secretions, herpes fluids, towels, handkerchiefs, tooth cups, toys, eating utensils, milk utensils, bedding, underwear, etc. contaminated by patients or hidden infections . It can also be transmitted through the respiratory tract (droplets, coughing, or sneezing), or it can be infected by contact with liquid from the patient's skin blisters. Viruses can be found in the throat and feces just a few days before the onset of the disease. At this time, the virus is infectious, usually within one week after the onset of infection. The patient expels the virus from the pharynx 1 to 2 weeks after the onset, and excretes the virus from the stool for about 3 to 5 weeks. The herpes fluid contains a lot of virus, and the virus overflows when it breaks.

Crowd susceptibility

Humans are generally susceptible to enteroviruses that cause HFMD, and infections can occur in all age groups, but recessive infections are dominant, and the ratio of recessive infections to dominant infections is about 100:1. After the body is infected by the virus, the neutralizing antibodies produced can stay in the body for a long time and produce a strong immunity to the same type of virus infection. Therefore, patients with HFMD are mainly preschool children, especially children under 5 years old, accounting for the incidence More than 90%. Most adults can carry the virus but do not get sick. Children under 1 year old have a higher incidence of severe myocarditis and encephalitis than children over 1 year old.

Popular features

HFMD is a common infectious disease in the world, and it is reported in most countries and regions of the world. New Zealand first reported in 1957 that CA16 was isolated in 1958. In 1959, it was officially named HFMD internationally. In 1972, American scientists confirmed that EV71 can also cause HFMD. Since then, EV71 infection has alternated with CA16 infection, becoming the main pathogen of HFMD.

HFMD is extremely widely distributed and there is no strict regional. HFMD can occur throughout the year, with obvious seasonal characteristics, more common in summer and autumn. It often increases from March to April and decreases after September. Periodic epidemics can occur between 2 and 3 years apart. The disease often occurs after an outbreak. During the epidemic, kindergartens and nurseries are prone to collective infections. Families also have this type of clustering. Cross-infection in hospital outpatient clinics and the sterilization of oral instruments are not strict, and can also cause transmission. There were two major epidemics in Tianjin, and the incidence of children in childcare units was significantly higher than that of scattered children. Family outbreaks, often one case in a family; family outbreaks, in which more than one family or children and adults are all infected. The disease is highly contagious, with complex transmission routes, high epidemic intensity, and rapid spread, which can cause pandemics in a short time.

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