Tuesday, June 23, 2020

Ebola virus disease prevention and control knowledge

Ebola virus disease is an acute infectious disease caused by Ebola virus infection, with a case fatality rate of up to 90%, which is one of the infectious diseases with the highest case fatality rate.

(1) What is Ebola virus disease?

Ebola virus disease (formerly known as "Ebola hemorrhagic fever") is an acute infectious disease caused by Ebola virus, which can infect human and non-human primates (such as monkeys, gorillas and chimpanzees, etc.) .

The disease has a high case fatality rate, and there is no specific treatment drug; the vaccine against human Ebola virus disease is still in the research and development stage, and there is no approved Ebola virus disease vaccine that is safe and effective for humans in the world.

(2) What is Ebola virus?

Ebola virus is the causative agent of Ebola virus disease and was first discovered in 1976.

The Ebola virus belongs to the Filaviridae family and has five types, including the Zaire type, Sudan type, Tay forest type, Bendibgio type and Leiston type, the first four of which can cause human and non-human Human primates suffer from Ebola virus disease. The fifth (Reston type) can only cause recessive infections in humans but not disease, but can cause non-human primates.

The origin of the virus is unknown. Based on the available evidence, the fruit bat (Pteropodidae) is considered to be a natural host for Ebola virus.

(3) What is the transmission route of Ebola virus disease?

Contact transmission is the main method of transmission of the disease. Healthy people are infected through contact with various body fluids, secretions, and excreta of patients with Ebola virus disease and infected animals, as well as items contaminated by body fluids of patients and infected animals, such as clothing, bed sheets, or used needles.

(4) Who is susceptible to Ebola virus?

The population is generally susceptible to Ebola virus, and the infected population is mainly adults. Persons with a higher risk of infection are:

1. Medical personnel who are in close contact with patients without taking proper protective measures;

2. Family members or others who have close contact with the patient;

3. Mourners who directly contact the body of the deceased at the funeral;

4. In areas where Ebola virus disease is endemic, people who have been exposed to animals or carcasses that may carry Ebola virus or disease.

(5) What are the typical symptoms and signs of Ebola virus infection?

Typical symptoms and signs include acute fever, extreme fatigue, muscle pain, headache and sore throat, followed by vomiting, diarrhea, rash, impaired kidney and liver function, and some patients have internal and external bleeding.

The incubation period of the disease is 2 to 21 days, and the common incubation period is 8 to 10 days. There is no contagion during the incubation period; once symptoms start to appear, they are contagious.

(6) Under what circumstances do you suspect that you are infected with Ebola virus disease?

At present, there is no case report of Ebola virus disease in my country, and there is no natural storage host (fruit bat) of the virus, so the possibility of the disease is low.

When you have one of the following conditions within the past 21 days:

1. Have been in contact with people who are known/suspected to carry Ebola virus;

2. Go to the area where Ebola virus disease is endemic;

3. Contact with bats in areas where Ebola virus disease is endemic, as well as non-human primates or animal carcasses such as monkeys, gorillas and chimpanzees.

If you have fever, or headache, muscle pain, vomiting, diarrhea, or unexplained bleeding, you should seek medical treatment immediately and report to the local disease prevention and control agency.

(7) How to prevent Ebola virus disease?

When traveling to areas where the Ebola virus disease is endemic, the key to personal prevention is to avoid contact with the bodies of Ebola virus disease patients and deceased persons, and animals that may carry Ebola virus (such as bats, monkeys, gorillas and chimpanzees) Etc.) or animal carcasses. In addition, individuals should understand the basic knowledge of the clinical manifestations, transmission routes, preventive measures, etc. of the disease, seek medical treatment in a timely manner once the symptoms of the disease appear, and cooperate with relevant national departments to carry out prevention and control work.

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