Monday, June 22, 2020

Diabetes Knowledge Science

1. Q: What is diabetes and how does the disease name come from?

A: Several British people urinate in the wild more than 200 years ago, and the urine of one of them attracted ants. Out of curiosity, the accompanying medical expert Thomas William dipped his finger in urine and tasted it, it was actually sweet! So, sweet urine → sugar in the urine → diabetes, the name of diabetes was born!

Now, the diagnosis of diabetes is no longer based on high "urinary sugar", but on high blood sugar. But because the earliest discovery of this disease was from "there is sugar in the urine", the name "diabetes" has been called down

2. Q: What is blood sugar and what is the use of sugar for the human body?

Answer: Blood sugar refers to the glucose in the blood. After digestion, staple foods are broken down into glucose and absorbed into the blood, which is the source of blood sugar. All human physiological activities consume energy. Without energy, people cannot even blink their eyes. The three major nutrients that provide energy are sugar, fat, and protein. Among them, glucose is the main source of energy for humans, accounting for 60% of the total energy. %about. The glucose in the blood needs to enter the cell and burn to produce energy. The task of "moving glucose from the blood into the cell" is done by insulin.

3. Q: What is insulin and what does it do?

Answer: Insulin is a hormone made by the islets (medically called secretion). It is the only substance in the body that can do the job of "carrying glucose into cells." Glucose is moved from the blood to the cells and consumed, so there is less sugar (blood sugar) in the blood. This is how insulin can lower blood sugar.

4. Q: Why does blood sugar increase?

Answer: When insulin is not enough or insulin resistance (that is, the efficiency is low), both can reduce the glucose that is moved into the cell. The glucose can only remain in the blood, and the blood sugar is high. High to a certain degree is diabetes, this is the essence of diabetes!

5. Q: Why is insulin insufficient?

A: Because the pancreas is exhausted, so much insulin cannot be produced.

6. Q: Why is there insulin resistance (low insulin efficiency)?

A: The causes of insulin resistance are very complex, and are the result of a combination of genetic, obesity, inflammatory response, increased tumor necrosis factor, oxidative stress, cell function defects, trace element deficiencies, and genetic mutations.

7. Q: What should the normal person's blood sugar be?

Answer: It can be summarized with "5678": the fasting blood glucose of normal people should be ≤5.6, and the blood glucose of 2 hours after a meal should be ≤7.8.

8. Q: How high is blood sugar?

Answer: Fasting blood glucose ≥ 7.0, or blood glucose ≥ 11.1 2 hours after a meal, or blood glucose ≥ 11.1 at any time. Reaching any of them is diabetes.

9. Q: What is pre-diabetes?

Answer: Pre-diabetes refers to fasting blood glucose between 6.1 and 7.0 or 2 hours after a meal between 7.8 and 11.1. Although it has not yet reached the diagnostic criteria for diabetes, it is not far from real diabetes. It is between normal people and diabetic people. Between the crowd. Without treatment, 30% of patients within a year, most patients will develop true diabetes within four to five years, and more seriously, pre-diabetes has already begun to damage the body.

10. Q: What is the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes?

Answer: Type 1 diabetes is that the islet cells are almost completely dead, and a little insulin can not be made. Such patients can only be treated with insulin. Most of the patients get this disease.

In type 2 diabetes, islet cells are not completely dead, and some of the islet cells can make insulin, but the amount of insulin produced is not enough, or the efficiency of insulin is low. Such patients can take hypoglycemic drugs for treatment and cannot fall down You can take insulin, and most of the patients are middle-aged and elderly. People usually say that diabetes is basically type 2 diabetes.

11. Q: What are the symptoms of diabetes?

Answer: The typical symptom is "more than one and less": more than three eat more, drink more, more urine, and less weight loss. There are also: dry mouth, fatigue, sleepiness, blurred vision, numbness in hands and feet, frequent boils and sores, wounds are not easy to be cured, impotence in men, repeated urinary tract infections in women, and itching in the vulva.

12. Q: What are the complications of diabetes?

Answer: Diabetes is not terrible, the terrible is complications, there are more than 100 kinds from head to toe. Complications of diabetes are mainly caused by damage to blood vessels, where there are complications.

According to the size of the damaged blood vessel, it can be divided into microvascular complications and macrovascular complications: ① microvascular complications: diabetic eye disease, diabetic nephropathy, diabetic foot disease... ② Complications of large vessels: coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, cerebral infarction, cerebral hemorrhage...

13. Q: How does diabetes cause blockage of blood vessels?

Answer: ①High blood sugar destroys the endothelium of blood vessels, enhances the ability of blood vessels to grow plaque, and aggravates blood vessel blockage; ②The collagen on the wall of the blood vessel is saccharified to enhance the ability of "catching fat", specifically catching the lipids in the blood The formation of plaque on the wall of blood vessels increases the blockage of blood vessels; ③The blood vessels of diabetic people "bubble in sugar" all day, the plaque is more prone to inflammation, causing erosion and rupture to form thrombosis, and blocking the blood vessels causes "here and infarction", The most serious are myocardial infarction and cerebral infarction.

14. Q: Is there any dependence on hypoglycemic drugs?

Answer: There is no dependence on hypoglycemic drugs, but diabetes cannot be cured, and long-term medication control is needed. It is not impossible to stop the whole life once you eat it. If you standardize the treatment early, take measures to protect the islets, repair the islets, and diet and exercise control, many patients can stop the medicine.

15. Q: What is the goal of blood sugar control?

Answer: Fasting blood glucose is 4~7mmol/L; 5~10mmol/L two hours after a meal.

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