Monday, June 22, 2020

Beware of "deep vein thrombosis" during pregnancy

The veins of the human body are divided into two systems, the superficial vein and the deep vein. The "green muscle" we can usually see is the superficial vein, and the deep vein is described as "deep" because it is located deeper, usually located in the muscle Between, can't see through the naked eye. The role of the deep and shallow two-venous system is to return the venous blood used by the tissue to the heart. Visually speaking, the two are like the sewer of the human body, sending the "sewage" back to the designated place-the heart.

Among them, the role of the deep venous system is much greater than the superficial venous system. Deep vein thrombosis is the abnormal clotting of blood in the deep veins in the deep vein cavity, clogging the blood vessels. Among all the veins, because the veins of the legs are the farthest from the heart, and the erect human body also causes the venous blood of the legs to overcome gravity to return to the heart, the deep veins of the human legs are most likely to form a thrombus.

The three main causes of thrombosis in blood vessels are: hypercoagulable blood state, slow blood flow rate, and damage to the intima of blood vessels.

Blood is not a liquid with a completely uniform density. There are also many red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, etc., which constantly transport various cells from the heart to the periphery, and then transport the peripheral cells back to the heart. In some special cases, the number of cells that need to be transported increases, leading to an increase in blood concentration. If the blood flow rate is slow, the red blood cells and white blood cells in the blood tend to deposit in the blood vessel wall. Just as the Yangtze River, which is mixed with a large amount of sediment, reaches a flat area at the estuary, when the water flow slowly deposits, an umbrella-shaped alluvial plain of the Yangtze River Delta is formed.

So what is the manifestation of deep vein thrombosis and what harm does it have to the patient?

After a thrombus is formed, blood cannot return effectively, just as the sewer is blocked and sewage cannot be drained, causing blood to accumulate in the distant part of the blockage and swelling of the limb, but pain is common. The swollen limb often has different degrees of pain, which is more obvious when walking down the ground. Once the thrombus falls off, it will follow the blood circulation path: inferior vena cava-right atrium-right ventricle, and eventually enter the pulmonary artery, causing "pulmonary artery embolism." Embolism may only cause a small part of the lung ischemia, but in fact it is like igniting a bomb in the ammunition depot. The explosions are one after another. A series of chain reactions cause a large area of ​​lung ischemia and lose the function of blood gas exchange , Often kill the patient's life.

The most typical cases are many patients who have been in bed for a long time, and their limbs cannot or can only move slightly. They just get out of bed and increase their activities. After standing up, they suddenly shouted "ah" and then fell down, chest tightness, shortness of breath, rapid heartbeat Finally, the heartbeat and breathing stop-this is a typical "fatal pulmonary embolism" symptoms.

Many diseases can cause deep vein thrombosis. Risk factors include elderly people, pregnant women in the middle and late stages, malignant tumors, obesity, varicose veins, paralysis, a history of severe trauma, major surgery of the lower extremities (especially hip), long-term bed rest or heart failure. Without preventive measures, the chance of these patients suffering from deep vein thrombosis of the calf can be as high as 40% to 80%, and the chance of fatal pulmonary embolism is 1% to 5%. Even among normal people flying long distances by plane, there is a very high prevalence of thrombosis. High blood coagulation, slow blood flow, and damage to the vascular intima are the three major culprits of thrombosis. During long-distance flight, the cabin is deprived of oxygen, repeatedly circulated air, and forgets to drink water when tired...

These factors make the blood in a hypercoagulable state. Many passengers are used to sitting quietly on their seats or simply sleeping when they get on the plane. The lack of exercise slows down the blood flow, and various factors interact, and the blood is very prone to form thrombosis. In order to arrange the most seats, the distance between the front and back seats of the economy class is very narrow, which objectively restricts the movement of passengers, making it easier for passengers in economy class to get deep vein thrombosis, which has historically been called in long-distance flights The thrombosis disease that occurs is "economy class syndrome". But this does not mean that passengers in the first class can sit back and relax. If you do not pay attention to prevention, you will also get blood clots.

An investigation has found that for ordinary passengers, pulmonary embolism may occur within 3 to 4 hours of flight time. The longer the flight time, the higher the risk of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism! In addition, sitting in front of a computer for a long time is also a major cause of illness. Sitting in front of a computer for more than 90 minutes will reduce the blood flow of the knee by 50%, thereby increasing the chance of thrombosis. Medicine calls this disease "electronic thrombosis."

The blood of passengers such as pregnant women, people who take oral contraceptives, and people with high blood viscosity are in a state of high coagulation, which makes them more vulnerable to diseases.

Ms. Xu was lucky to be able to be treated promptly and received proper treatment, so that both mother and child could be treated.

Therefore, life is exercise, and pregnant women should remember to exercise properly to prevent deep vein thrombosis.

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