Monday, June 22, 2020

Anorectal disease knowledge

Anorectal disease refers to all series of diseases related to the anus and colorectal. There are more than 100 common anorectal diseases with a total incidence of 59.1%. There are more women than men in the country and more men than women in the country. Common ones include hemorrhoids, anal fissures, perianal abscesses, anal fistulas, rectal prolapse, constipation, colorectal tumors, and inflammatory bowel disease.

Hemorrhoids

Hemorrhoids refer to clumps formed by pathological hypertrophy and displacement of the anal pad and blood stasis of the subcutaneous vascular plexus around the anus. It is called hemorrhoidal disease when it has clinical symptoms such as prolapse, blood in the stool, and pain. Hemorrhoidal disease is the most common anorectal disease in our country. Hemorrhoids can occur in people of any age. It is more common in people aged 20 to 40, and the incidence rate gradually increases with age. Hemorrhoids are divided into internal hemorrhoids, external hemorrhoids, and mixed hemorrhoids. Internal hemorrhoids are divided into period I hemorrhoids, period II hemorrhoids, and period III hemorrhoids; external hemorrhoids are divided into inflammatory external hemorrhoids, external thrombosis, varicose external hemorrhoids, and fibrotic external hemorrhoids. Different types of governance are different.

Anal fissure

Anal fissure refers to the splitting of the skin of the anal canal and the formation of ulcers. Clinically, it is mainly characterized by periodic anal pain, blood in the stool, and constipation. It is more common in young adults between 20 and 40 years old. The occurrence of anal fissure is usually closely related to anal canal anatomical defects, excessive force during defecation, dry stool, and other factors, but it can also be secondary to ulcerative colitis and granulomatous colon Inflammation, tuberculous ulcers, syphilis, hematological malignancies, etc.

Perianal abscess

Perianal abscess refers to an acute suppurative infection that occurs in the soft tissue around the anus or rectum or the surrounding space and forms an abscess. This disease can occur at any age, but in young adults aged 20 to 40, men are higher than women. It has the characteristics of sudden onset, severe pain, accompanied by fever, ulceration or incision and drainage, and often forms anal fistula.

Anal fistula

Anal fistula refers to an abnormal channel formed by the anal canal or rectum due to pathological reasons to communicate with the adjacent skin or tissue around the anus. It is generally composed of the primary inner mouth, fistula, and secondary outer mouth. The main clinical manifestations of this disease are repeated pus discharge, swelling and pain near the anus. It occurs more frequently in young and middle-aged people, with a male to female incidence ratio of 5:1. Most of its causes are related to anal gland infection.

Rectal prolapse

Rectal prolapse refers to a disease in which the rectal mucosa, the full thickness of the rectum, the anal canal, and even part of the sigmoid colon are displaced downward and protrude out of the anus. With the improvement of people's living standards, this disease has become rare in cities. The disease can occur in all ages, but it is more common in young children, parturient women, and elderly frail.

constipation

Constipation is a set of symptoms that can be caused by a variety of diseases, including low stools, hard stools, difficulty in passing stools, prolonged bowel movements, anal swelling, incontinence, with or without abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, blood in the stool, Symptoms such as irritability. Due to the differences in people's diet and bowel habits, it is not comprehensive to evaluate whether constipation is based only on the number of dry stools and the number of bowel movements. Modern understanding of the concept of constipation should take Rome Ⅱ as the standard: constipation refers to dry stools, difficulty in defecation or incomplete defecation, and reduced frequency of defecation. The etiology can be divided into organic and functional. At present, according to the location of difficulty in defecation and dysmotility, it is internationally recognized that FC is divided into three types: slow transmission type, outlet obstruction type, and hybrid type.

Inflammatory bowel disease

Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic non-specific intestinal inflammatory disease whose etiology is not fully understood, including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. The former is a chronic non-specific colon inflammation. In severe cases, ulcers occur. The main clinical manifestations are diarrhea, abdominal pain and mucous pus and bloody stools. Crohn's disease is a chronic granulomatous inflammation, clinical manifestations of abdominal pain, diarrhea, fistula, anal lesions and various degrees of systemic symptoms.

Colorectal cancer

Colorectal cancer refers to a malignant tumor that occurs in the colorectal. It is the fourth most common malignant tumor in my country, and its morbidity and mortality tend to increase year by year. In a sample survey of one-tenth of the population in my country from 1990 to 1992, the average mortality rate of colorectal cancer was 4.54 per 100,000 population, ranking fifth among cancer deaths.

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