Monday, June 22, 2020

Acute diarrhea, drink some saline

Summer and autumn season change is the season of high incidence of infectious diarrhea, commonly known as "diarrhoea", which means that the frequency of bowel movements obviously exceeds the frequency of usual habits, the stool is thin, the water is increased, and even the dilute water sample, can be discharged more than 10 times a day, often accompanied by abdominal sounds , Intestinal colic or tenesmus, and some patients' feces contain undigested food or pus blood, mucus, or fever, nausea and vomiting.

Common pathogens that cause acute infectious diarrhea are bacteria and viruses, including E. coli, Salmonella, Shigella, Proteus, etc.; rotavirus, Novak virus, Coxsackie virus, Echo and other viruses. The common way of infection is to use food or tableware contaminated by pathogens, so it is very important to maintain hand washing and food hygiene before meals.

In addition to causing discomfort, diarrhea itself can cause dehydration, electrolyte disturbance, abnormal kidney function, acidosis, and shock. At home, you can prevent and control the above complications through some measures to reduce the damage of the disease to the body.

Prevent dehydration. The frequency of diarrhea, especially watery diarrhea, will cause the body to lose a lot of water. Some patients believe that eating and drinking water when diarrhea is sick provides a lot of "production raw materials" for diarrhea, so they do not eat or drink, hoping to use this method to stifle the source of diarrhea. In fact, the reduction in diarrhea indicates that the body's water shortage has developed to a certain degree, and it is easy to have acidosis and shock on this basis, and the consequences are much more serious than diarrhea.

Self-judgment of dehydration is simple: feeling thirsty, decreased urine output compared to usual, dizziness when sitting up or standing up, and getting better when lying down. As long as you don't vomit, you must drink water and add some salt. If accompanied by vomiting or unable to eat or drink, urgent medical attention is required.

Prevent electrolyte disturbance. Diarrhea loses not only water but also electrolytes. Simply put, electrolytes are the salts in the body, including sodium ions, potassium ions, and bicarbonate ions. Electrolyte disturbance itself can cause fatigue, palpitations, arrhythmia, etc., and severe hypokalemia can also lead to life-threatening. Currently, commercial oral rehydration salts are available. At home, you can also take the method of drinking water and adding salt to supplement sodium ions. The amount of adding salt should be slightly salty. For potassium supplementation, you can drink a variety of freshly squeezed juices.

Critical judgment of illness. In general, those who have vomiting and diarrhea who cannot eat or drink need timely medical treatment. In some patients with diarrhea, the disease develops quickly or even dangerously. Emergency treatment is also required when the condition is critical: if you get dizzy when you sit up or stand up, the self-tested blood pressure drops significantly, the skin appears red (or dark purple) white and white patterns, and hands and feet If the temperature is obviously cold, after the finger's skin is pressed, the skin tone recovery time exceeds 2 seconds, and the consciousness is unclear.

It is not recommended to use medication for certain symptoms empirically. Patients with diarrhea are prone to symptoms of palpitation and palpitations. Therefore, many people, especially the elderly, are likely to think of coronary heart disease attacks, so they take nitroglycerin sublingually according to past experience. Patients with diarrhea and coronary heart disease may indeed have a myocardial ischemic attack, but this ischemia is more likely due to insufficient blood volume caused by dehydration. Sometimes the patient's blood pressure is compensated and is barely within the normal range. At this time, it is extremely sensitive to vasodilators such as nitroglycerin. After use, it may cause severe hypotension, which directly leads to insufficient blood supply to the heart, causing dizziness and even dizziness. Syncope. Therefore, when patients have symptoms of palpitation and palpitations, they need to see a doctor in time, and a professional doctor will make a professional differential diagnosis.

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