Monday, June 22, 2020

14 cancer issues that everyone cares most about

Q:

Does an elevated tumor marker mean cancer?

A:

No, the tumor markers of certain benign diseases will also increase. The significance of the detection of tumor standards lies in dynamic changes. For example, a progressive increase has a hint significance for cancer. Various tumor markers in the clinic can only be used as one of the auxiliary diagnostic indicators of the tumor. The clinical diagnosis cannot be determined solely by the examination results of the tumor markers, and needs to be combined with other examinations.

Indeed, when many cancers occur, the test results of tumor markers may be significantly higher than normal, such as: prostate cancer and PSA, liver cancer and AFP, but this is a more specific cancer index, which can reflect to a certain extent The presence of cancer.

However, for some cancers with low specificity, such as lung cancer, gastric cancer, intestinal tumors, etc., when the tumor marker test results show normal, it may already have cancer.

Q:

Cancer is all bad luck, and prevention is useless?

A:

Some time ago, an article stated that 66% of cancer-related gene mutations were caused by random errors in gene replication. For a time, many people thought that "66% of cancers are bad luck." This statement is obviously wrong. Gene mutation is only a necessary condition for cancer to occur, but it is not sufficient. It may require multiple gene mutations to cause cancer, and some external factors are also one of the important factors that induce gene mutations. As long as the cause of a mutated gene is from external factors, then this cancer is largely preventable of.

According to the World Health Organization, one third of malignant tumors can be prevented, one third can be treated, and one third can be cured. The initiative to prevent cancer is in the hands of everyone.

The American Association for Cancer Research pointed out that the easiest way to prevent cancer is to eat more fruits and vegetables, which can reduce the risk of cancer by 20%, and recommends that people eat at least 5 servings of fruits and vegetables (1 serving of about 85 grams) per day, reduce animal fat intake, and maintain Standard weight, exercise at least 30 minutes a day, quit smoking and limit alcohol.

As long as you stick to the first line of defense "prevention is more important than cure", develop a healthy lifestyle and avoid known cancer risk factors, plus the second line of defense for regular screening, it is not difficult to stay away from cancer.

Q:

Every year is under physical examination, why is it late?

A:

This is because the general medical examination does not cover all screening items, and the focus is different. Therefore, the two cannot be compared. For example, many people think that X-ray chest radiography can detect lung cancer. In fact, it is difficult to find early lung cancer. It's mid-late.

Anti-cancer physical examination, in addition to early detection of tumors present in the body, will also analyze the factors that cause the subject to develop tumors, and conduct health education and unhealthy lifestyle interventions on the subject.

People often confuse the nature of health screening and early cancer screening. Health screening cannot replace early screening for cancer. The former examines the heart, liver, kidney function, blood sugar, blood lipids, blood pressure, etc., grasps the general condition of the human body, has a good screening effect on chronic basic diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, etc., but cannot catch early cancer in time. The latter is a medical examination of asymptomatic healthy people. In addition to screening for early cancer, it also checks and evaluates some functional changes and diseases that increase the probability of cancer.

Cancer screening is often selected according to different ages and different situations, and the setting of inspection items is more personalized. For example, people with a family history of breast cancer, women over the age of 40 pay attention to the choice of breast ultrasound and molybdenum target examination. Smokers should do chest low-dose spiral CT every year. Therefore, high-risk groups with cancer-causing factors should regularly go to the hospital for anti-cancer physical examination.

Q:

Is cancer 100% curable when detected early?

A:

No. Early cancer may be cured, but early cancer still has a certain recurrence rate after effective treatment such as surgery.

Cancer is different from diseases caused by other pathogens. Diseases caused by other pathogens can be said to be cured as long as the viruses and bacteria are removed.

This is not the case with cancer. The onset of cancer is not caused by a specific pathogen infection, but due to the canceration of its own cells. So far, the mechanism of cancer formation and metastasis is still not very clear, and there is still no effective means from the cell level. Completely eliminate cancer.

Even so, almost all cancers are diagnosed early and have a high cure rate. Taking gastric cancer as an example, the cure rate of early gastric cancer can reach 90%, but once it enters the middle and late stages, the survival rate drops sharply, only about 30%.

Q:

Is excessive iodine intake the culprit of thyroid cancer?

A:

No. Thyroid cancer is related to genetics, head and neck radiation, and autoimmune factors. There is no definite evidence that excessive iodine intake leads to thyroid cancer, and the amount of iodine in the conventional diet is not enough to cause an abnormal increase in iodine intake. The benefits of iodine supplementation are far greater than the risks caused by excessive iodine. Current data shows that the incidence of thyroid cancer is high because of more accurate screening methods.

Q:

Why do some cancers disappear after being detected?

A:

The biological behavior of tumors is complex and diverse, and most tumor cells continue to proliferate once they are generated, but the natural regression of tumors has also been observed.

The causes of tumor regression may include certain factors that stimulate the body's natural anti-tumor ability, namely its own immune function. Some cancers with a very small tumor load, such as "one-point cancer" of the stomach, are diagnosed as cancer by endoscopic biopsy, but no tumor cells are seen in the serial sections of surgical specimens, that is, the tumor has been removed during the examination, so after the tumor is detected, the tumor will be Has disappeared.

Q:

Are there any sayings of "marital cancer" and "brother cancer"?

A:

To be precise, it should be that some cancers have a tendency to crowd. Cancer is not contagious, but it may be because the living habits and eating habits of the two couples are similar, so it will increase the chance of suffering from the same type of cancer, such as lung cancer, bowel cancer, and liver cancer.

If one couple has the habit of smoking frequently, then the other person will definitely be affected. If two people live in such a situation for a long time, it is possible to increase the risk of lung cancer between the couple.

The husband and wife are similar in their eating habits and eating patterns. For example, if both husband and wife like to eat heavier food, then under this influence, both of them may increase the risk of bowel cancer.

We know that hepatitis B is an infectious disease. Some patients with hepatitis B can develop liver cancer. If one of the couples has hepatitis B, then the other side may also be infected with hepatitis B, which will also increase the risk of both couples suffering from liver cancer.

Q:

Can cancer be starved to death?

A:

There is a big concern in the daily life of cancer patients: they worry that nutrition promotes tumor growth, thereby reducing nutritional intake. What's more, hope to starve the tumor by starvation.

International authoritative guidelines point out that there is no evidence that nutritional support promotes tumor growth, and this theoretical issue need not be considered in clinical practice.

Without nutrition, normal cells will not be able to perform their physiological functions, and tumor cells will still plunder the nutrition of normal cells. As a result, it is the patient, not the tumor cells, who is starving to death.

Malnourished people are more likely to develop tumors, malnourished cancer patients have more complications, lower quality of life, worse clinical prognosis, and shorter survival time. Nutritional support should become a basic treatment for cancer patients. In daily life, eating can neither be too full nor too small. It is best to be full for seven or eight.

Q:

Will X-ray, CT, PET/CT and other medical examination radiation cause cancer?

A:

will not. In daily life, each of us is in “intimate contact” with radiation at any time and any place. Although we can’t see or touch it, we are irradiated by rays of light unconsciously.

In X-ray, CT, PET/CT and other medical examinations, the radiation is strictly controlled within the absolute safety and as little range as possible, which is similar to the radiation on a plane.

Taking PET/CT as an example, the radiation received by the subject mainly comes from the injected radiocontrast agent. The radiation dose is about 5-10 mSv, which is far lower than the dose that will cause damage to people. In addition, the human body repairs itself, and the effects of radiation are almost completely eliminated soon.

Q:

Surgery and chemotherapy are too painful. Can cancer patients be treated directly with targeted drugs?

A:

Can't. Targeted drugs are drugs developed for specific targets (a certain protein that promotes cell growth on tumor cells, etc.). If there is no corresponding targeted mutation, direct use of targeted drugs is likely to have no effect.

Q:

Do I have drug resistance? When should I change the treatment plan?

A:

Cancer treatment resistance means that the current use of therapeutic drugs can no longer control tumor progression. Generally, new symptoms or signs (such as progressive enlargement of superficial lymph nodes, etc.) will appear, or tumor progress will be found during imaging examinations such as CT and MRI.

When to change the treatment plan is generally based on the rate of tumor progression and whether the body can tolerate other treatment plans. Generally, lung cancer patients with poor physical condition can choose to continue the original targeted drug therapy when the targeted therapy is slowly progressing.

Q:

Obviously the treatment effect is very good, how did the lymph nodes metastasize?

A:

If the tumor has new lymph node metastasis, it will be considered as disease progression and the treatment effect is not good. Or when the treatment is carried out by local treatment, the local tumor is controlled but the remaining tumors are not effectively treated and progress.

Q:

Does pregnancy cause recurrence and metastasis of breast cancer?

A:

There is no definite evidence that pregnancy directly leads to the recurrence and metastasis of breast cancer.

Studies have shown that breast cancer patients will not only cause tumor recurrence and metastasis if they go to birth after comprehensive treatment, but also improve the overall quality of life. This is the gospel that children bring to their mothers!

But fertility does not mean that fertility is not taboo. In order to ensure the safety of breast cancer patients and their fetuses, it is best to fully communicate with the attending doctor on the basis of regular menstruation and good physical functions to choose the best time to conceive.

Q:

After the cancer is removed, does the patient go home without a follow-up visit?

A:

Definitely and surely tell everyone: Yes! Definitely! Absolutely!

The biological characteristics of malignant tumors have the possibility of local recurrence and systemic metastasis, so the treatment of tumors is arduous and long-term.

After receiving treatment, tumor patients should also be regularly reviewed and followed up. Depending on the disease, the follow-up time varies slightly, but it is generally once every 3 months or half a year, and it can be once a year after 5 years.

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